Silhouettes of Italian Submarines

From a publication of the United States Division of Naval Intelligence – Identification & Characteristic Section – Publication O.N.I 220-A Serial 2 August, 1942

Archimede

Argo

Argonauta

Balilla

Bragadin

Brin

Calvi

Fieramosca

Foca

Liuzzi

Mameli

Manara

Marcello

Micca

Pisani

Settembrini

Squalo

Italian Submarine Song

The Submarine Song (later known as the Submariners’ Anthem or the Submarines’ Anthem) is a song dedicated to Italian submariners, composed during the Fascist regime to music by Mario Ruccione, a prolific composer, also author of ‘Faccetta nera’ and numerous other classic fascist songs. The text is by the playwright and journalist Guglielmo Giannini – credited with the pseudonym Zorro – who in the post-war period would become known as the creator of a political movement.


Sfiorano l’onde nere nella fitta oscurità, 
dalle torrette fiere ogni sguardo attento sta !
Taciti ed invisibili
partono i sommergibili !
Cuori e motori
d’assaltatori 
contro l’Immensità !
Skimming the black waves in the dark night
from the proud towers every lookout is on the alert
silent and invisible
leaves the submarines
hearts and motors
to take storm
against immensity
Andar pel vasto mar 
ridendo in faccia a Monna Morte ed al Destino !
Colpir 
e seppellir 
ogni nemico che s’incontra sul cammino !
È così che vive il marinar 
nel profondo cuor 
del sonante mar !
Del nemico e dell’avversità 
se ne infischia perché sa che vincerà !
Going into the vast sea
laughing into Lady death’s face and to destiny
strike
bury
every enemy to be found along the way
this is the sailor’s life
in the deep heart
of the sounding ocean
of the enemy and adversity
he does not care because he knows he shall win
Giù sotto l’onda grigia di foschia nell’albeggiar 
una torretta bigia spia la preda al suo passar !
Scatta dal sommergibile 
rapido ed infallibile 
dritto e sicuro 
batte il siluro 
schianta e sconvolge il mar 
Under the surf gray of down mist
as gray turret spies on the enemy passing by
jumps from the submarine
fast and infallible
straight and sure
hits the torpedo
crashing and upsetting the sea
Andar, ecc.Going…
Ora sull’onda azzurra nella luce mattinal !
Ogni motor sussurra come un canto trionfal !
Ai porti inaccessibili 
tornano i sommergibili
ogni bandiera 
che batte fiera
una vittoria val !
Now on the blue wave in the morning light
every engine whispers with a victory hymn
to the inaccessible ports
return the submarines
every flag
which proudly flies
a victory signifies
Andar, ecc.Going…

Italian officers Assigned to the High Command of BETASOM


Rank
(Equivalents)
Name Assignment
(Italian)
Assignment
(English)
StartedEnded
Ammiraglio di DivisioneParona, AngeloComandante SuperioreCommanding Officer8/31/19404/8/1941
Contrammiraglio di DivisioneParona, Angelo==4/9/19419/17/1941
Capitano di VascelloPolacchini, Romolo==9/18/19419/4/1942
ContrammiraglioPolacchini, Romolo==9/5/194212/28/1942
Capitano di VascelloGrossi, Enzo==12/29/19429/8/1943
Capitano di FregataCocchia, AldoCapo di Stato MaggioreChief of Staff10/7/194011/7/1940
Capitano di VascelloCocchia, Aldo==11/8/19404/24/1941
Capitano di VascelloPolacchini, Romolo==4/25/19419/17/1941
Capitano di FregataCaridi, Giuseppe==10/1/19413/1/1943
Capitano di FregataCorsi, FerdinandoCoadiutore del ComandanteAdjutant to the Commanding officer 1/22/19439/8/1943
Capitano di FregataCapone, TeodoricoComandante della BaseBase Commander8/25/19402/22/1942
Capitano di FregataCaridi, Giuseppe==2/23/19423/1/1943
Capitano di CorvettaDe Giacomo, Antonio==6/1/19439/8/1943
Capitano di Corvettade Moratti, BrunoCapo Servizio ComunicazioniChief Communication Officer9/1/19404/28/1941
Capitano di CorvettaAlesi, Massimo==4/29/19419/15/1941
Capitano di CorvettaDe Giacomo, Antonio==6/1/19439/8/1943
Capitano di CorvettaGiudice, UgoCapo Servizio OperazioniChief Operations Officer8/31/19402/8/1941
Capitano di CorvettaAnfossi, Giovenale==4/15/19412/10/1943
Tenente di VascelloAuconi, WalterCapo Servizio ArmiChief Armament Officer9/8/19404/14/1941
Capitano di CorvettaLesca, Riccardo==4/15/19411/26/1942
Tenente di VascelloColetto, GiacomoComandante Compagnia Battaglione ” San Marco”Commander “San Marco” Battalion3/12/19412/6/1942
Maggiore Genio NavaleFenu, GiulloCapo Servizio Genio NavaleChief Naval Engineer8/31/19409/8/1943
Maggiore MedicoCrucilla, GiulioCapo Servizio SanitarioChief Medical Officer8/25/19403/1/1941
Maggiore MedicoMeoni, Mario==3/2/19418/5/1942
Maggiore MedicoCastellani, Giuseppe==8/6/19429/8/1943
Tenente Colonnello CommissarioDi Losa, MarioCapo Servizio AmministrativoChief Administrative Officer8/31/19404/24/1941
Maggiore CommissarioVillani, Guido          ==4/25/19416/20/1942
Maggiore CommissarioAchilli, Pietro        ==6/21/19429/8/1943
Tenente Colonnello di PortoBenifei, Mario      Requisizioni Navi           Ship Requisitions4/30/19415/15/1943
Tenente Colonnello di PortoDe Renzi, Ettore         ==2/20/19439/8/1943
Tenente Colonnello di PortoCamino, Michele      ==4/17/19422/15/1943
Maggiore di PortoScaparro, Giovanni   ==4/11/194112/31/1941
Tenente Colonnello di PortoScaparro, Giovanni   ==1/1/19425/12/1942
Tenente Cappellano   Messori Roncaglia, Cario Assistenza spirituale        Chaplan11/29/19409/8/1943
Maggiore Granatieri  Orgera, FrancoComandante Reparti Battaglione “San Marco”Commander Group “San Marco”9/20/19403/20/1941
Capitano Granatieri   Gatti, Giovanni     ==3/21/19418/19/1943
Tenente Carabinieri  Sottiletti, Roberto      Comandante 282* Sezione Carabinieri MobilitataCommander, 282nd Carabinieri4/29/19412/21/1942
Tenente Carabinieri   Ippolito, Michele   ==2/22/19429/8/1943

R. Smg. Dentice

Dentice was submarine of the Tritone (or Flutto) class, 1st series with a displacement of 905 tons surfaced and 1.070 tons submerged. Crew was expected to be 49 men including 5 officers.  Laid down on August 23rd,1943 at the Tosi shipyard in Taranto, work was suspended after the Italian armistice of September 8th, 1943. Cernia and Spigola were also under construction in the same shipyard and had the same fate. The boat, no longer necessary to the war effort, was never completed and broken up in 1948.

An image of Flutto to render an idea of the expected final look of Dentice

R. Smg. Cernia

Cernia a submarine of the Tritone (or Flutto) class, 1st series with a displacement of 905 tons surfaced and 1.070 tons submerged. Crew was expected to be 49 men including 5 officers.  Laid down on July 12th,1943 at the Tosi shipyard in Taranto, work was suspended after the Italian armistice of September 8th, 1943. Spigola and Dentice were also under construction in the same shipyard and had the same fate. The boat, no longer necessary to the war effort, was never completed and broken up in 1948.

An image of Flutto to render an idea of the expected final look of Cernia

R. Smg. Spigola

Spigola was a submarine of the Tritone (or Flutto) class, 1st series with a displacement of 905 tons surfaced and 1.070 tons submerged. Crew was expected to be 49 men including 5 officers.  Laid down on June 10th,1943 (Navy Day in Italy) at the Tosi shipyard in Taranto, work was suspended after the Italian armistice of September 8th, 1943. Cernia and Dentice were also under construction in the same shipyard and had the same fate. The boat, no longer necessary to the war effort, was never completed and broken up in 1948.

An image of Flutto to render an idea of the expected final look of Spigola

Submarine Naming and Meaning

Each class of submarines had a unique naming pattern, though there were a few exceptions.

Adua Class
Boats were named after famous places in Italian East Africa (AOI); Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia. Mostly linked to war events.

Ammiragli and Pisani Classes
Boats named after famous admirals thought Italian history.

Argo
Boats were named after mythological sea monsters.

Argonauta, Foca, and Glouco, and Tritone Classes
Boats were named after sea creatures, real or mythological.

Balilla Class
Boats named after Italian war heroes.

Brin Class
Boats were named after scientists and or historians.

Calvi, Liuzzi, and Mameli Classes
Boats were named after Italian patriots.

Marcello Class
Boats were named after famous Italian noble families.

Marconi Class
Boats named after Italian scientists.

Perla, Platino and Sirena Classes
Boats were named after gems or stones.

R
Boats were named after mythological figures.

Settembrini Class
Boats were named after famous statesman.

BoatClassFull Name (English)Description
AcciaioPlatinoSteelMetal
AduaAduaAdwaThe Battle of Adwa was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War
AlabastroPlatinoAlabasterStone
AlagiAduaAlagiAmba Alagi, a mountain in Ethiopia
Alessandro MalaspinaMarconiAlessandro MalaspinaA Tuscan explorer who spent most of his life as a Spanish naval officer
Alpino BagnoliniLiuzziAlpino Attilio Bagnolini A gold Medal for Valor who died in 1936 in the battle of Mai Ceu (Ethiopia)
AmbraPerlaAmberHard, clear yellowish-brown gum
AmetistaSirenaAmethystPrecious stone
Ammiraglio CagniAmmiragliAdmiral CagniItalian admiral and explorer
Ammiraglio CaraccioloAmmiragliAdmiral CaraccioloAdmiral of the Napolitan navy
Ammiraglio MilloAmmiragliAdmiral MilloAdmiral of the Italian navy
Ammiraglio Saint BonAmmiragliAdmiral Saint BonItalian admiral, he was awarded the gold medal at Lissa
AnfitriteSirenaAmphitritePrecious stone
Antonio SciesaBalillaAntonio SciesaItalian patriot executed by the Austrians
AradamAduaAradamAmba Aradam, a mountain in Ethiopia
ArchimedeArchimedeArchimedesGreek colonist in Sicily, mathematician and physicist
ArgentoPlatinoSilverMetal
ArgoArgoArgonMonster of Greek mythology with one hundred eyes
ArgonautaArgonautaArgonautA pelagic cephalopod
AscianghiAduaAscianghiLake in Ethiopia and site of a battle
AsteriaPlatinoAsteriated CorundumStone
AtropoFocaAtroposOn of the three Fates of the Greek mythology
AvorioPlatinoIvoryWhite substance forming the tusks of elephants
AxumAduaAxumTown in Northen Ethiopia
BalillaBalillaBalillaYoung fascist boy
BarbarigoMarcelloBarbarigoNoble family of Venice
BausanPisaniGiovanni BausanOfficer of the navy
BeilulAduaBeilulA town in Eritrea
BerilloPerlaberylliumMineral based on the chemical element beryllium
BrinBrinBenedetto BrinItalian statesman, minister of the Navy and naval designer
BronzoPlatinoBronzeAlloy
Capitano TarantiniLiuzziCapitano Raffaele Tarantini Engineer and captain of the Italian Army who died in Ethiopia
CerniaTritoneGrouperSea creature
Ciro MenottiBandieraCiro MenottiItalian patriot
CobaltoPlatinoCobaltChemical element
Comandante CappelliniMarcelloCommander Alfredo CappelliniHe was the commander of the warship Palestro at the battle of Lissa
Comandante Faa Di BrunoMarcelloCommander Emilio Faa Di BrunoHe was the commander of the ship Re d’Italia at the battle of Lissa
Console Generale LiuzziLiuzziGeneral Consul Alberto LiuzziA general Consul of the Fascist Black Shirt
CoralloPerlaCoralHard, red, pink or white substance built on the seabed by small creatures
CorridoniBragadinFilippo CorridoniItalian socialist and syndicalism
Da ProcidaMameliGiovanni da ProcidaRuler of Procida in Sicily, follower of Manfredi, against the Angevin
DagaburAduaDagaburLocality between Somalia and Ethiopia
DandoloMarcelloDandoloNoble family of Venice,
DelfinoSqualoDolphinSea creature
DenticeTritoneDentexSea creature
Des GeneysPisaniGiorgio des GeneysAn Italian admiral from Genoa
DessièAduaDessièCity of Ethiopia, capital of the Walla province
DiamanteSirenaDiamondPrecious stone
DiasproPerlaJasperSemi-precious stone, red, yellow or brown
DurboAduaDurboA Somali coastal town on the Gulf of Aden
EmoMarcelloEmoNoble family of Venice,
Enrico TazzoliCalviEnrico TazzoliItalian patriot
Ettore FieramoscaFieramoscaEttore FieramoscaNobleman of Capua, famous for the duel of Barletta
Evangelista TorricelliArchimedeEvangelista TorricelliPhysicist and mathematician, follower of Galilei
FisaliaArgonautaFisaliaA marine floating coelenterate forming the sea plankton
FluttoTritoneWaveSea creature
FocaFocaSealKinds of mammals of the sea with fur and flippers
Fratelli BandieraBandieraFratelli BandieraItalian patriots of Venice
GalateaSirenaGalateaPrecious stone
Galileo FerrarisArchimedeGalileo FerrarisItalian engineer and physicist
Galileo GalileiArchimedeGalileo GalileiPhysicist, astronomer and philosopher
GalvaniBrinLuigi GalvaniItalian scientist
GemmaPerlaGemPrecious stone or jewel
GiadaPlatinoJadeStone
Giuseppe FinziCalviGiuseppe FinziItalian patriot and politician
GlaucoGlaucoGlaucusA character of Greek mythology
GondarAduaGondarTown in Ethiopia, theater of a battle
GorgoTritoneEddySea creature
GranitoPlatinoGraniteStone
GroncoTritoneGruger eelSea creature
Guglielmo MarconiMarconiGuglielmo MarconiItalian scientist and inventor
GuglielmottiBrinAlberto GuglielmottiDominican friar, fan of naval history and author of many writings
IridePerlaIrisKinds of flowering plant
JaleaArgonautaJaleaSea creature
JantinaArgonautaJantinaFamily of small floating gastropod
LafolèAduaLafolèVillage in Somalia, where an Italian expedition force was slain
Leonardo Da VinciMarconiLeonardo Da VinciA genius of Italian Renaissance
Luciano ManaraBandieraLuciano ManaraItalian patriot
Luigi TorelliMarconiLuigi TorelliA member of diverse scientific and economic institutions
MacallèAduaMacallèTown in Ethiopia
Maggiore BaraccaMarconiMajor Francesco BaraccaAce of the Italian Air Force in the First World War
MalachitePerlaMalachiteKind of green stone used for ornaments
MameliMameliGoffredo MameliItalian patriot and poet, author of the lyrics of the Italian national anthem
Marcantonio BragadinBragadinMarcantonio BragadinAdmiral of the Venetian fleet
Marcantonio ColonnaPisaniMarcantonio ColonnaAdmiral of Pope Pius V, was the supreme commander at the battle of Lepanto
MarcelloMarcelloMarcelloNoble family of Venice,
MareaTritoneTideSea creature
MedusaArgonautaJellyfishSea creature
MiccaMiccaPietro MiccaItalian patriot
Michele BianchiMarconiMichele BianchiItalian politician, one of the founders of the Fascist Party in Italy
MillelireBalillaDomenico MillelireCaptain of the Sardinian navy
MocenigoMarcelloMocenigoNoble family of Venice,
MorosiniMarcelloMorosiniNoble family of Venice,
MurenaTritoneMoray eelSea creature
NaiadeSirenaNaiadPrecious stone
NaniMarcelloNaniNoble family of Venice,
NarvaloSqualoNarwhalSea creature
NautiloTritoneNautilusSea creature
NeghelliAduaNeghelliPlace in Ethiopia, theater of a battle
NereideSirenaNereidPrecious stone
NichelioPlatinoNickelMetal
OndinaSirenaUndinePrecious stone
OnicePerlaOnyxSorts of quartz in layers of different
OtariaGlaucoOtaryA sea-animal similar to a seal
PerlaPerlaPearlSilvery-white or bluish-white round deposit found inside some oysters
Pier CapponiMameliPier CapponiStatesman of Florence under the Medici
Pietro CalviCalviPietro CalviItalian patriot
PlatinoPlatinoPlatinumMetal
PorfidoPlatinoPorphyryStone
ProvanaMarcelloProvanaNoble family of Piedmont,
Reginaldo GiulianiLiuzziReginaldo GiulianiMilitary chaplain in Eastern Africa, he died in the battle of Tembien
RemoRRemusA son of Mars
RomoloRRomulusA son of Mars,
RubinoSirenaRubyPrecious stone
Ruggiero SettimoSettembriniRuggiero Settimo Italian statesman, in the Kingdom of the two Sicilies
SalpaArgonautaSalpaSea creature
Santorre SantarosaBandieraSantorre SantarosaItalian patriot
ScirèAduaScirèRegion of northern Ethiopia , theater of a battle
SerpenteArgonautaSnakeAny of numerous limbless scaled reptiles
SettembriniSettembriniSettembriniItalian patriot and writer
SirenaSirenaMermaidPrecious stone
SmeraldoSirenaEmeraldPrecious stone
SparideTritoneSparidesSea creature
SperiMameliHopeItalian patriot
SpigolaTritoneSea bassSea creature
SqualoSqualoSharkSea creature
TembienAduaTembienMountain region in northern Ethiopia , theater of a battle
TopazioSirenaTopazPrecious stone
TotiBalillaEnrico TotiHero of the First World War
TrichecoSqualoWalrusSea creature
TritoneTritoneTritonSea creature
TurchesePerlaTurquoiseGreenish-blue precious stone
UarsciekAduaUarsciekPort of Benadir in Somalia
Uebi ScebeliAduaUebi ShebeliThe main river (Wabi) of East Africa
VelellaArgoVelellaSea animal (similar to the medusa)
VenieroMarcelloVenieroNoble family of Venice,
Vettor PisaniPisaniVettor PisaniVenetian admiral
VolframioPlatinoVolframioMetal
VorticeTritoneVortexSea creature
ZaffiroSirenaSapphirePrecious stone
ZoeaFocaZoeaSea animal, it is the larva of some crustacea

SUPERMARINA

Starting in 1935, the Italian Fascist government had eliminated the division of roles and responsibilities at the highest level of the armed forces by nominating Benito Mussolini minister or the Army, Air Force and Navy and thus giving him total control over these institutions.

“Palazzo Marina’

The highest hierarchy within the Navy which used to be called “Ufficio del Capo di S.M.” was renamed in 1936 “Ufficio di Stato Maggiore” (High Command Office) and was organized in three units:

  • Information (I)
  • Operations and Training (OA)
  • Mobilization, Defense, Services (MDS)

And four inspectorates:

  • Artillery and ammunitions (IAM)
  • Submarine Weapons (IAS)
  • Naval Engineering (ISGN)
  • Naval aviation (IAV)
  • Historical Bureau and Procurement

All units and inspectorates were led by an admiral with the sole exception of Naval Aviation which was under the command of a general from the air force.  As early as 1938, when a looming war against the British Empire appeared inevitable, the 1st Office (Operations and War Plan) was reorganized in what was a precursor of SUPERMARINA. Before the beginning of the conflict, in May 1940, the government decreed a reorganization of the Navy command into:

  • Operational Group (SUPERMARINA)
  • Units and Inspectorates (MARISTAT)

Specifically, SUPERMARINA responsibilities were defines as:

  • Give general directive regarding naval warfare.
  • Issue general operational orders.
  • Disseminate information regarding naval activity
  • Disseminate information regarding enemy naval activity.
  • Designate the commanding officer at sea.
  • Coordinate the strategic activities at sea of detached units.
  • Promote, under established rules, the participation of ARMERA (independent air force), Italian North Africa High Command (A.S.I.), and the Aegean High Command for both activities organized by itself and or emergencies.
  • Promote, based on individual or ongoing  agreement s, the participation of the allied air force (Germans)

SUPERMARINA included as part of its operation group:

  • The Chief of Naval Operations along with his flag officer and designated personnel
  • The Vice Chief of Naval Operations along with his flag officer and designated personnel
  • Four assisting admirals along with their flag officer and designated personnel divided in
    • Head Operation unit.
    • Head plans and operations.
    • Officers assigned to the “Comando Supremo” office.

SUPERMARINA was the telegraphic denomination for this office, and, during the conflict, it quickly became a household name due to the many mentions in war bulletins. SUPERMARINA operated, more or less, in the same manner during the whole conflict. Shifts lasted 12 hours and the change of officer on duty took place at 8:00 PM and 8:00 AM.  After the morning change of guard, a small report was presented to the new officer and forwarded to the head of the Navy and also ‘Comando Supremo’. At 11:30 AM all admirals met under the presidency of the Vice Chief of Naval Operations (Adm. Edoardo Somigli until December 10th, 1940 and then Adm. Inigo Campioni, and eventually Adm. Luigi Sansonetti) to review the situation and issue orders which had to be approved by the Chief of Naval Operations  .

Naval operations, including the position of ships, were tracked on a very large map of the Mediterranean though the use of push pins (some authors refer to ship cutouts).  Each type of unit was represented by a different type of pin. If the precise position of the units were not known, a new position was estimated based on previous direction and speed. The positions were regularly updated and included know enemy and neutral vessels.

This operational center was located within the building which still houses the Ministry of the Navy along ‘Lungotevere Flaminio” (Along the river – Tiber- in the Flaminio neighborhood).  In addition to the primary area, the Navy had constructed a secondary one in the basement in expectation of aerial bombardment which never materialized. In fact, the ministry was too close to the Vatican to even consider such a reckless action.  When Rome was declared an open city (August 14th, 1943), SUPERMARINA was relocated in Santa Rosa (La Storta) where the Italian Navy hosted its radiotelegraphy operation center located in subterranean bunkers.

This new temporary command center was only 20 km north of the city along the ancient Cassia road and was temporarily housed above ground in specially built barracks.  This office closed definitively on September 12th following the Italian surrender. By then, although it had lost its operational functions, it was the only functioning Italian high military command post having similar organizations, SUPERAEREO and SUPERESERCITO, already disbanded.

Throughout the conflict, SUPERMARINA was directly in control of most naval operations in line with Italian military naval doctrine which called for a highly centralized command post.  Lack of operational freedom for the commander at sea was often the reason for a very conservative conduct and, as in the case of Matapan, resulted in terrible losses. SUPERMARINA, despite the capillary organization, lacked the intelligence insight the Royal Navy and the direct line of communication and collaboration with both the other branches and the German allies.  To overcome this last deficiency, SUPERMARINA positioned German coordination officers aboard the larger units of the Italian fleet.

R. Smg. Macallè

The Macallé was an Adua-class, 600 series, Bernardis type submarine. Laid down on March 1st, 1936, in the OTO shipyard in La Spezia, it was launched on October 29th, 1936, and delivered to the Regia Marina on March 1st, 1937.

The beautiful shape of hull of the 600 series. Here the Macallè still on the slip in La Spezia.

On April 20th, 1937, the Macallé was assigned to the 23rd Submarine Squadron based in Naples. After undergoing a brief training, from August 27th through September 3rd, 1937, the submarine carried a special secret mission in connection with the operations of the Spanish Civil War.

The Macallè leaving Mar Piccolo, Tranto
(Risolio Collection)

In 1938, the Macallè was reassigned to La Spezia first under the command of Lieutenant Commander Giuseppe Aicardi and then Lieutenant Commander Salvatore Todaro. Transferred to the submarine base of Mar Piccolo in Taranto, on November 14th, 1938 left for Leros (Italian Dodecanese) arriving on the 16th, and then staying there for a few months. The boat eventually left Leros on March 28th, 1939, and returned to Taranto on March 30th, 1939.

In early 1940, it was reassigned to Massawa, Italian Eritrea, to became part of the 82nd Squadron (VIII Submarine Group) of the Red Sea Flotilla. On June 10th, 1940, in the afternoon, she left Massawa under command of Lieutenant Commander Dante Morone to begin her first war patrol and operate in an area about eight miles east of the British Port Sudan.

During the patrol, the boat ran into many problems. First, due to an overcast sky, the crew couldn’t establish positioning based on celestial navigation. Second, it was difficult to clearly identify landmarks which made navigation in an area known for the many islets, outcropping rocks, shoals, and reefs quite perilous. The more serious problem started manifesting on the 12th when the crew began experiencing symptoms common to food poisoning without understanding that the real cause was methyl chloride leaking from the air conditioning system.

The itinerary
(U.S.M.M.)

The primary target of methyl chloride (also known as chloromethane) is the central nervous system, with behavioral symptoms and neurologic effects. Overexposures can result in loss of equilibrium, dizziness, semiconsciousness, and delayed death; all the officers and almost all the crew were intoxicated, and there were some cases of madness and delirium.  Although discovered and commercialized since 1928, Freon was not used on Italian submarines until 1940 when boats, such as the Archimede, were refitted replacing chloromethane with freon,

On 14th June, at dawn, a lighthouse was sighted believed to be the Sanganeb Shallows (Sanganeb Reef Light), but it was indeed the Hindi Gider lighthouse, which was about 30 miles away from the assumed position.  This lighthouse is halfway between Port Sudan and Sawakin, about 35 nautical miles off the mainland coast. This mistake caused the loss of the Macallè because the navigation officer believed that the submarine had reached deeper waters, when in fact the unit was still in a danger zone. Quite off course, the Macallè ran aground on the rocks of the island Bar Mùsa Kebir (19°12′ N, 38°11′ E) in the early hours of June 15th. The boat ended up listed nearly 90° on one side, with the bow completely out of the water and the stern submerged.

The heavily intoxicated and non-essential personnel were disembarked on the nearby islet, Barra Musa Kebir, along with supplies and other items, while Captain Morone and some of the others tried to disentangle the submarine. It was not possible. At that point, the secret cyphers were destroyed, and scuttling maneuvers started to avoid the capture of the unit (which was close to territories controlled by the British). The Macallè, weighed down by the water taken aboard, dislodged itself and sank sliding on a seabed of 400 meters. According to other sources, however, the submarine did not sink intentionally, but was lost accidentally during the maneuvers to free it.

Captain Morone, however, forgot (probably due to the numbness produced by the intoxication), to send a distress signal to base (according to other sources the order was given before the sinking, but the radio room was already flooded). The crew of the submarine thus found themselves isolated on a minis ule desert island, with scarce supplies of food and without the base having any idea not only of where they were, but not even knowing that the Macallè had been lost.

Preparations were therefore made for a long stay. Shelters were prepared to avoid standing under the scorching sun and provisions were rationed. Since surviving on the islet for a long time would have been impossible, and the best prospect was capture by the British, it was decided that some volunteers would try to reach an Italian outpost on the coast of Eritrea to set rescue efforts in motion.

On the June 15th, in the evening, three men – Ensign Elio Sandroni, Helmsman Sergeant Reginaldo Torchia, and sailor Paolo Costagliola – boarded a small sailing boat equipped with two oars, with three bottles of water and small quantities of ham and crackers. On the 17th, they landed on the coast of Sudan, but, as it was British territory, they had to move on. On June 20th, they finally arrived at the Italian lighthouse at Taclai, Eritrea, and were able to alert the Navy command in Massawa.

A book (in Italia) dedicated to Elio Sandroni who continued in the Italian Navy to retire as a Rear-Admiral. He passed away in 2012. After saving the crew of the Macallè with a daring feat, he joined the crew of the submarine Perla. On the eve of the Italian defeat in East Africa, the Perla departed on March 1st arriving in Bordeaux on May 20th, 1941, after having circumnavigated the African continent.

An aircraft sent from Massawa parachuted on the islet food supplies and at the same time the submarine Guglielmotti set sail from that base. On June 22nd, the Guglielmotti rescued the crew of the Macallè. The survivors of the Macallè are in very poor conditions, especially as a result of methyl chloride poisoning. Many, as soon as they spotted the Guglielmotti approaching and putting a boat in the water, jumped into the sea and swam to it, not being able to wait any longer. With two or three trips of the boat, the Guglielmotti was able to recover all the survivors. It then moved away and dove (later it would resurface), just as two British planes had returned circling over the island (another aircraft had already done so before). Some of the survivors, mad or delirious from the combined effect of methyl chloride, sunstroke, and thirst, were tied up for the entire journey back to Massawa.

Sub-Chief Torpedoman Carlo Acefalo

One of the crew members, the sub-chief Carlo Acefalo, already heavily intoxicated by the methyl chloride, and debilitated by the trying experience, died on the islet on June 17th and was buried there: he was the only victim among 45 crewmen of the submarine. Ensign Sandroni received the Silver Medal for Military Valor for is valiant effort in seeking help. In 2014 a team was set up to find and recognize the remains of the fallen sailor. The remains of Carlo Acefalo returned to Rome on October 8th, 2018, and on November 23rd, to Savona. The same afternoon the box was transferred to the Town Hall of Castiglione Falletto, in the hall of the City Council. On Saturday, November 24th, in the morning, prayers and the blessing of the remains preceded the burial in the local cemetery, next to his mother Francesca. Carlo Acefalo had returned home after more than 78 years.

In that first and last was patrol the Macallè had traveled 450 miles, all on the surface.

Operational Records

TypePatrols (Med.)Patrols (Other)NM SurfaceNM Sub.Days at SeaNM/DayAverage Speed
Submarine – Coastal0145005 90.00 3.75

Crew Members Lost

Last NameFirst NameRankItalian RankDate
AcefaloCarloJunior Chief TorpedomanSottocapo6/?/1940

Submarines Actions

Italian Submarine Actions

This information was originally generated by the U.S.M.M. (Historical Bureau of the Italian Navy) and later updated over the years by various authors based on new finding.

DateTimeBoatCaptainAreaCoordinatesConvoyWeaponResultShipTypeTonnsFlag
6/12/194021.57NaiadeT.V. Luigi BaroniMediterraneanTorpedoSankOrkangerMotor Tanker8029Norwey
6/12/194000.59BagnoliniC.C. Franco Tosoni PittoniMediterranean34°03’N-24°05’ETorpedoSankHMS CalypsoLight Cruiser4180Great Britain
6/13/1940DandoloC.C. Riccardo BorisMediterraneanTorpedoFailedJeanne de VienneLight CruiserFrance
6/16/194006:10DurboC.C. Armando AcanforaMediterranean34°06’N-11°33’E TorpedoFailed?Corvette or DestroyerFrance
6/17/194015:00GalileiC.C. Corrado NardiIndian Ocean12°35’N-45°03’ETorpedoSankJarnes StoveMotor Tanker8215Great Britain
6/22/194001.35CapponiC.C. Romeo RomeiMediterranean36°59’N-11°12’ETorpedoSankElgoSteam Freighter1888Sweden
6/23/194006:00TorricelliC.C. Salvatore PelosiIndian Ocean13°N-43°EArtilleryDamagedHMS ShorehamGunboat1105Great Britain
6/23/194005.35TorricelliC.C. Salvatore PelosiIndian Ocean13°N-43°EArtillerySankHMS KarthoumDestroyer1690Great Britain
7/2/194023.30MarconiC.C. Giulio ChialambertoMediterraneanGibraltarTorpedoFailedHMS VortigenDestroyerGreat Britain
7/7/194023.41BeilulC.C. Paolo VigliasindiMediterranean32°40’N-28°10’ETorpedoFailedHMS Hasty DestroyerGreat Britain
1/9/194100.17BeilulC.C. Paolo VigliasindiMediterranean35°25′ N-26°28′ ETorpedoFailedVasilef GeorgiosDestroyer1371Greece
6/3/1942BeilulT.V. Francesco PedrottiMediterraneanTorpedoFailedEscort UnitsUnknown
6/12/194321.55BeilulT.V. Pasquale BeltrameMediterraneanCapo PasseroTorpedoFailedEscort UnitsUnknown
7/10/194019.30ScirèT.V. Adriano PiniMediterraneanIsland of AsinaraTorpedoSankCheikSteam Freighter1058France
7/11/194003:00MarconiC.C. Giulio ChialambertoMediterranean36°20’N-03°46’ETorpedoSankHMS EscortDestroyer1375Great Britain
7/11/194023:00TarantiniC.C. Alfredo IaschiMediterraneanHaifaTorpedoSankBemeTanker3039Panama
8/1/1940MameliC.C. Nicola MaioranaMediterranean34°00’N-26°00’EArtillerySankRoulaSteam Freighter1044Greece
8/13/194005.50MalaspinaC.F. Mario LeoniAtlantic Ocean37°44’N-22°56’WOB.193dTorpedoSankBritish FameMotor Tanker8406Great Britain
8/15/1940DelfinoT.V. Giuseppe AicardiMediterraneanTinosTorpedoSankHelliLight Cruiser2116Greece
8/20/194014:00BarbarigoC.C. Giulio GhiglieriAtlantic Ocean31°15’N-13°02’WArtilleryDamagedAguilaSteam Freighter3255Great Britain
8/21/194020.30DandoloC.C. Riccardo BorisAtlantic Ocean38°57’N-13°50’WTorpedoDamagedHermesMotor Tanker3768Netherland
8/26/194018:00DandoloC.C. Riccardo BorisAtlantic Ocean37°14’N-21°52’WTorpedoSankIlvington CourtSteam Freighter5187Great Britain
9/7/194015:00GuglielmottiC.C. Carlo TucciIndian Ocean15°50’N-41°50’ETorpedoSankAtlasMotor Freighter4008Greece
9/9/194010.40Faa  di BrunoC.C. Aldo EnriciAtlantic OceanArtilleryDamagedAurisMotor Tanker8030Great Britain
9/14/194008.30EmoC.C. Carlo LiannazzaAtlantic Ocean42°27’N-21°50’WSLS.46dTorpedo and ArtillerySankSaint AgnesSteam Freighter5199Great Britain
9/18/1940BagnoliniC.C. Franco Tosoni PittoniAtlantic Ocean41°20’N-09°16’WTorpedoSankCabo TortosaSteam Freighter3302Spain
9/19/194020.34SerpenteC.C. Antonio DottaMediterraneanSanta Maria di LeucaTorpedoFailedColonnaSubmarine880Italy
9/19/194003.15MarconiC.C. Giulio ChialambertoAtlantic Ocean43°30’N-08°50’WTorpedoSankAlm. Jose de CarranzaSteam Trawler330Spain
10/1/194016.15BaraccaC.C. Enrico BertarelliAtlantic Ocean40’N-16°55’WArtillerySankAghios NicolaosSteam Freighter3687Greece
10/5/194004.13NaniC.C. Gioacchino PolizziAtlantic OceanTorpedoSankKingston SapphireGunboat356Great Britain
10/6/1940TrichecoC.C. Alberto Avogadro di CerrioneMediterranean35°30’N-27°18’ETorpedoSankGemmaSubmarine695Italy
10/12/194012.52TazzoliC.C. Vittore RaccanelliAtlantic Ocean35°34’N-10°35’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankOraoSteam Freighter5135Yugoslavia
10/15/194023.15CappelliniC.C. Salvatore TodaroAtlantic Ocean32’N-31°20’WOB.223dArtillerySankKabaloSteam Freighter5186Belgium
10/15/194001.40TotiC.C. Bandino BandiniMediterranean36°16’N-17°37’ETorpedo and ArtillerySankHMS TriadSubmarine1090Great Britain
10/27/1940NaniC.C. Gioacchino PolizziAtlantic Ocean37°N-24°WArtillerySankMeggieSteam Freighter1583Sweden
11/9/194021.05MarconiC.C. Giulio ChialambertoAtlantic Ocean55°41’N-18°24’WHX.84TorpedoSankVingalandMotor Freighter2734Sweden
11/10/19400.09CapponiC.C. Romeo RomeiMediterraneanMaltaTorpedoFailedRamilliesBattleshipGreat Britain
11/18/194017.40BaraccaC.C. Enrico BertarelliAtlantic Ocean53°N-17°WSLS.53dTorpedoSankLilian MollerSteam Freighter4866Great Britain
11/26/194022.26TembienT.V. Guido GozziMediterranean36°00’N-14°47’ETorpedoFailedYorkHeavy CruiserGreat Britain
11/26/194022.33TembienT.V. Guido GozziMediterranean36°00’N-13°47’ETorpedoFailedGlocesterLight CruiserGreat Britain
11/28/194003.05DessièT.V. Adriano PiniMediterranean36°30’N-12°59’ETorpedoFailedGlasgowLight CruiserGreat Britain
11/29/194023.20DelfinoC.C. Alberto Avogadro di CerrioneMediterraneanKalojieriTorpedoFailedSpetsaiDestroyerGreece
12/1/194004.49ArgoT.V. Alberto CrepasAtlantic Ocean54°04-16°55’WTorpedoDamagedSanguenayDestroyer1337Great Britain
12/5/194003.39ArgoT.V. Alberto CrepasAtlantic Ocean54°14’N-18°8’WOB.252sTorpedoSankSilverpineMotor Freighter5066Great Britain
12/18/194005.15VenieroC.C. Manlio PetroniAtlantic Ocean54°24’N-19°04’WSC.15dTorpedoSankAnastassiaSteam Freighter2889Greece
12/19/194017.50BagnoliniC.C. Franco Tosoni PittoniAtlantic Ocean54°10’N-15°50’WSC.15 dTorpedoSankAmicusSteam Freighter3660Great Britain
12/20/194001.02SerpenteC.C. Antonio DottaMediterranean35°30’N-16°20’ETorpedoFailedH.M.S. HyperionDestroyerGreat Britain
12/20/194010:00CalviC.C. Giuseppe CaridiAtlantic Ocean54°30’N-18°30’WOB.260dTorpedoSankCarltonSteam Freighter5162Great Britain
12/21/194022.09MocenigoC.C. Alberto AgostiniAtlantic Ocean41°N-17°WOG.47TorpedoSankMangenSteam Freighter1253Sweden
12/27/194014.45TazzoliC.C. Vittore RaccanelliAtlantic Ocean59°16’N-20°27’WTorpedoSankArdanbahnSteam Freighter4980Great Britain
1/1/194120:00BagnoliniC.C. Franco Tosoni PittoniAtlantic Ocean54°10’N-13°55’WTorpedoFailedNorthen prideGunboatGreat Britain
1/5/194110:00CappelliniC.C. Salvatore TodaroAtlantic Ocean18°05’N-21°10’WOB.262dTorpedo and ArtillerySankShakespeareSteam Freighter5029Great Britain
1/10/194122.22SettimoC.C. Mario SpanoMediterranean35°22’N-16°15’ETorpedoFailedSouthamptonLight CruiserGreat Britain
1/14/194108.30CappelliniC.C. Salvatore TodaroAtlantic Ocean8°55’N-15°03’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankEumaeusSteam Freighter7472Great Britain
1/15/194121.20TorelliC.F. Primo LongobardoAtlantic Ocean52°45’N-23°59’WTorpedoSankBraskSteam Freighter4079Norwey
1/15/194121.48TorelliC.F. Primo LongobardoAtlantic Ocean52°33’N-24°13’WTorpedoSankNemeaSteam Freighter5101Greece
1/16/194110:00TorelliC.F. Primo LongobardoAtlantic Ocean53°N-24°WTorpedo and ArtillerySankNicolaos FilinisSteam Freighter3111Greece
1/20/194112.20MarcelloC.C. Carlo Alberto TeppatiAtlantic Ocean50°N-19°WArtillerySankPortugalSteam Freighter1550Belgium
1/28/194121:00TorelliC.F. Primo LongobardoAtlantic Ocean54°54’N-19’WHX.102sTorpedoSankUrlaSteam Freighter5198Great Britain
1/31/194119.18DandoloC.C. Riccardo BorisAtlantic Ocean56’N-15°42’WTorpedoSankPizarroSteam Freighter1367Great Britain
2/14/194101.45BianchiC.C. Adalberto GiovanniniAtlantic Ocean54°N-21°WSC.21TorpedoSankBelcrestSteam Freighter4517Great Britain
2/23/1941BianchiC.C. Adalberto GiovanniniAtlantic OceanTorpedoSankManistreeSteam Freighter5360Great Britain
2/24/194103.45BianchiC.C. Adalberto GiovanniniAtlantic Ocean58°25’N-20°23’WOB.228TorpedoSankHuntingtonSteam Freighter10946Great Britain
2/27/194101.45BianchiC.C. Adalberto GiovanniniAtlantic OceanTorpedoFailedEmpire AbilitySteam FreighterGreat Britain
2/27/194104.47BianchiC.C. Adalberto GiovanniniAtlantic Ocean51°52’N-19°55’WOB.290TorpedoSankBaltistanSteam Freighter6803Great Britain
3/14/194113.07EmoC.C. Giuseppe Roselli LorenziniAtlantic Ocean58°52’N-21°13’WSC24 sTorpedoSankWestein ChiefSteam Freighter5759Great Britain
3/24/194116.09VenieroC.C. Manlio PetroniAtlantic Ocean49°00’N-22°55’WOG.56 dTorpedo and ArtillerySankAgnete MaerskSteam Freighter2104Great Britain
3/29/194120:27DagaburT.V. Domenico RomanoMediterranean33°47′ N-25°24′ ETorpedoDamaged (?)H.M.S. BonaventureLight Cruiser5440Great Britain
3/31/194102.44AmbraT.V. Mario ArilloMediterranean33°20’N-26°35’ETorpedoFailedH.M.S. StuartDestroyerGreat Britain
3/31/194102.44AmbraT.V. Mario ArilloMediterranean33°20’N-26°35’ETorpedoSankH.M.S. BonaventureLight Cruiser5440Great Britain
4/15/194121.31TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean37°09’N-18°42’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAurillacSteam Freighter4733Great Britain
5/7/194109:00TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean10°N-20°’WTorpedoSankFernlaneMotor Freighter4310Norwey
5/9/194120.16TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean2°59’N-20°26’WTorpedoSankAlfred OlsenMotor Tanker8817Norwey
5/20/194100.13OtariaC.C. Giuseppe VocaturoAtlantic Ocean51°45’N-20°45’WSL.73TorpedoSankStarcrossSteam Freighter4662Great Britain
6/1/194114.52MarconiT.V. Mario Paolo PollinaAtlantic Ocean36°N-11°’WTorpedoSankExportadorSteam Trawler318Portugal
6/6/19412.15VenieroC.C. Manlio PetroniAtlantic OceanOG.64TorpedoFailedAriostoSteam Freighter2176Great Britain
6/6/19414.25MarconiT.V. Mario Paolo PollinaAtlantic Ocean35°30’N-11°30’WOG.63TorpedoSankBaron LovatSteam Freighter3395Great Britain
6/6/19414.27MarconiT.V. Mario Paolo PollinaAtlantic Ocean35°36’N-11°12’WOG.63TorpedoSankTabergSteam Freighter1392Sweden
6/13/194104.50BrinC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean38°53’N-23°11’WSL.75TorpedoSankEirini KyriakidesSteam Freighter3781Greece
6/13/194104.50BrinC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean38°53’N-23°11’WSL.75TorpedoSankDjurdjuraSteam Freighter3460France
6/20/194121.33OndinaT.V. Corrado Dal PozzoMediterranean36°08’N-34°44’ETorpedoSankRefahSteam Freighter3805Turky
6/28/194112.54Da VinciC.C. Ferdinando CaldaAtlantic Ocean34°27’N-11°57’WTorpedoSankAurisMotor Tanker8030Great Britain
7/3/194120.05MalachiteT.V. Enzo ZanniMediterranean32°25’N-34°54’ETorpedoFailedH.M.S. PhoebeLight CruiserGreat Britain
7/14/194116.07MorosiniC.C. Athos FraternaleAtlantic Ocean36°18’N-21°11’WOG.67 dTorpedoSankRupert de LarrinagaSteam Freighter5358Great Britain
7/14/194122.15MalaspinaT.V. Giuliano PriniAtlantic Ocean36°N-21°’WOG.67 dTorpedoSankNikoklisSteam Freighter3575Greece
7/15/194103.44MorosiniC.C. Athos FraternaleAtlantic Ocean36°N-21°’WTorpedoSankLady SomersSteam Freighter8194Great Britain
7/15/194116.45MalaspinaT.V. Giuliano PriniAtlantic Ocean30°44’N-17°33’WTorpedoSankGuelmaSteam Freighter4402Great Britain
7/16/194101.07NereideT.V. Augusto MiglioriniMediterranean37°25’N-25°52’ETorpedo and ArtilleryFailedTritonSubmarineGreece
7/21/194121.34TorelliC.C. Antonio De GiacomoAtlantic Ocean34°34’N-13°14’WTorpedoSankIda KnudsenMotor Tanker8913Norwey
7/25/194100.34BarbarigoC.C. Francesco MurziAtlantic Ocean32°48’N-26°12’WTorpedoSankMaconSteam Freighter5135Great Britain
7/26/194122.39BarbarigoC.C. Francesco MurziAtlantic Ocean33°23’N-22°18’WTorpedoSankHorn ShellMotor Tanker8272Great Britain
8/12/194121.10TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean4’N-9’WTorpedoFailedSangaraSteam Freighter5449Great Britain
8/14/194112.01MarconiT.V. Mario Paolo PollinaAtlantic Ocean41’N-17°41’WHG.70 sTorpedo and ArtilleryDamagedSudSteam Freighter2689Yugoslavia
8/19/194122.59TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean5°30’N-12°50’WTorpedoSankSildraMotor Tanker7313Norwey
9/10/194121.29TopazioC.C. Emilio BerenganMediterranean33°27’N-34°54’ETorpedoSankMurefteSteam Freighter691Great Britain
9/20/1941ScirèC.C. Junio Valerio BorgheseMediterraneanGibraltarAttack CraftSankFiona ShellSteam Freighter2444Great Britain
9/21/194121.46AscianghiT.V. Olinto Di SerioMediterranean33°57’N-35°04’ETorpedoSankAntarSteam Freighter389Poland
11/8/194107.20DandoloC.C. Walter AuconiMediterraneanMelillaTorpedoSankCastillo OropesaSteam Freighter6600Spain
12/14/194119:55DagabutC.C. Alberto TorriMediterranean34°01′ N-26°02′ ETorpedoFailedH.M.S. TalismanSubmarine1090Great Britain
1/23/1942BarbarigoC.C. Enzo GrossiAtlantic Ocean36°48’N-15°26’WTorpedoSankNavemarSteam Freighter5473Spain
2/20/1942TorelliC.C. Antonio De GiacomoAtlantic Ocean13°24’N-49°36’WTorpedoSankScottish StarSteam Freighter7224Great Britain
2/25/194200.43TorelliC.C. Antonio De GiacomoAtlantic Ocean10°32’N-53°20’WTorpedoSankEsso CopenhagenMotor Tanker9245Panama
2/25/1942Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean16°N-49°WTorpedoSankCabedelloSteam Freighter3557Brazil
2/28/194201.30Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean17°N-48°WTorpedoSankEverasmaSteam Freighter3644Latvia
3/6/194202.35TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean29°12’N-64°29’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAstreaSteam Freighter1406Netherland
3/6/19423.08FinziC.C. Ugo GiudiceAtlantic Ocean23°35’N-62°39’WTorpedoSankMelpomeneMotor Tanker7011Great Britain
3/7/194205:00TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean31°22’N-68°05’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankTonsbergfjordMotor Freighter3156Norwey
3/7/194201.50FinziC.C. Ugo GiudiceAtlantic Ocean20°50’N-62°05’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankSkaneSteam Freighter4528Sweden
3/9/194202:00TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean29°13’N-69°35’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankMontevideoSteam Freighter5785Uruguay
3/10/194201.24FinziC.C. Ugo GiudiceAtlantic Ocean23°10’N-20°28’WTorpedoSankCharles RacineMotor Tanker9957Norwey
3/11/194222.50TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean24°N-58°WTorpedo and ArtillerySankCygnetSteam Freighter3628Panama
3/12/194201.38MorosiniC.C. Athos FraternaleAtlantic Ocean22°N-65°WTorpedoSankStangarthSteam Freighter5966Great Britain
3/13/194218.05TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean26°33’N-74°43’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankDaytonianSteam Freighter6434Great Britain
3/14/194220.56MocenigoC.C. Paolo MonechiMediterranean36°16’N-05°05’ETorpedoSankS. te MarcelleSailing Vessel1518France
3/15/194221.35TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean26°5’N-75°40’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAthelqueenMotor Tanker8780Great Britain
3/16/194205.03MorosiniC.C. Athos FraternaleAtlantic Ocean19°15’N-60°25’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankOscillaMotor Tanker6341Netherland
3/23/194220.38MorosiniC.C. Athos FraternaleAtlantic Ocean24°41’N-57°44’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankPeder BogenTanker9741Great Britain
3/29/194207.45CalviC.C. Emilio OlivieriAtlantic Ocean12’N-43’WTorpedoSankTredinnickSteam Freighter4589Great Britain
3/31/194221.05CalviC.C. Emilio OlivieriAtlantic Ocean7°10’N-45°20’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankT.C. McCobbDestroyer7452United States
4/6/194203.17AradamT.V. Oscar GranMediterranean37°47’N-11°05’ETorpedoSankHMS HavockDestroyer1340Great Britain
4/8/194223.57CalviC.C. Emilio OlivieriAtlantic Ocean2°12’N-39°55’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankEugene ThayerDestroyer7138United States
4/11/194200.24CalviC.C. Emilio OlivieriAtlantic Ocean2°30’S-38’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankBalkisMotor Tanker2161Norwey
4/11/194200.24CalviC.C. Emilio OlivieriAtlantic Ocean2°32’S-35°3’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankBen Brush (Caroline Mærsk)Motor Tanker7691Panama
4/28/194204.10CoralloC.C. Gino AndreaniMediterranean37°01’N-11°09’EArtillerySankDar-el-SalamSailing Vessel138Tunisia
4/28/194204.10CoralloC.C. Gino AndreaniMediterranean37°01’N-11°09’EArtillerySankTunisSailing Vessel41Tunisia
5/18/194222.30BarbarigoC.C. Enzo GrossiAtlantic Ocean2°59’N-34°10’WTorpedo and ArtilleryDamagedCommandante LyraSteam Freighter5052Brazil
5/19/194200.31CappelliniT.V. Marco RevedinAtlantic Ocean3°38’N-32°01’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankTisnarenSteam Freighter5747Sweden
5/23/194209.38ArchimedeC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean2°10’S-35°55’WTorpedoFailedU.S.S. MoffettDestroyerUnited States
5/28/194222.20BarbarigoC.C. Enzo GrossiAtlantic Ocean6°22’S-29°44’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankCharlburySteam Freighter4835Great Britain
5/31/194202.30CappelliniT.V. Marco RevedinAtlantic Ocean0°45’S-29°50’WTorpedoSankDinsdaleFleet Tanker8214Great Britain
6/2/194222.5Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean7°16’N-13°20’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankReine Marie StewartSailing Vessel1087Panama
6/7/194223.28Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean4°17’N-13°48’WTorpedoSankChileMotor Freighter6956Great Britain
6/7/194202:00CoralloC.C. Gino AndreaniMediterranean37°24’N-9°10’EArtillerySankHady M’HammedSailing Vessel26Tunisia
6/10/194223.33Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean0°08’N-18°52’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAliothMotor Freighter5483Netherland
6/13/1942:008.30Da VinciC.C. Luigi Longanesi-CattaniAtlantic Ocean5°30’N-23°30’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankClan MacquarrieSteam Freighter6471Great Britain
6/15/194216.30ArchimedeC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean4°45’N-40°55’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankCardinaSteam Freighter5586Panama
6/15/1942CA 3T.V. Giovanni SorrentinoBlack SeaTorpedoSankS 32Submarine840Soviet Unions
6/18/1942CA 2S.T.V. Attilio RussoBlack SeaTorpedoSankSC-213Submarine586Soviet Unions
6/22/194221.25AlagiT.V. Sergio PucciniMediterraneanCape BonTorpedoSankUsodimareDestroyer1943Italy
6/30/194208.40MorosiniT.V. Francesco D’AlessandroAtlantic Ocean25°33’N-57°33’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankTysaMotor Freighter5327Netherland
7/9/194205:00PerlaT.V. Gioacchino VenturaMediterraneanBeirutTorpedoSankMachester CitySteam Freighter0Great Britain
7/12/194220.04AlagiT.V. Sergio PucciniMediterranean34°59’N-35°32’ETorpedoSankAntaresSteam Freighter3723Turky
8/1/194222.59TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean11°06’N-59°05’WTorpedoSankKastorSteam Freighter5497Greece
8/7/194210.31TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean11°18’N-54°45’WTorpedoSankHavstenMotor Tanker6161Norwey
8/10/194207.04GiulianiC.F. Giovanni BrunoAtlantic Ocean9°26’N-38°28’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankMedonMotor Freighter5444Great Britain
8/11/194204.42UarsciekT.V. Gaetano Arezzo della TargiaMediterranean37°52’N-01°48’EWS21STorpedoFailedFuriousAircraft Carrier19826Great Britain
8/12/194216.33EmoT.V. Giuseppe FrancoMediterranean37°52’N-9°21’EWS21STorpedoFailedH.M.S. TartarDestroyerGreat Britain
8/12/194223.48BronzoT.V. Cesare BuldriniMediterranean37°34’N-10°34’EWS21STorpedoSankEmpire HopeSteam Freighter12688Great Britain
8/12/194219.55AxumC.C. Renato FerriniMediterranean37°26’N-10°22’EWS21STorpedoSankHMS CairoLight Cruiser4200Great Britain
8/12/194219.55AxumC.C. Renato FerriniMediterranean37°26’N-10°22’EWS21STorpedoDamagedHMS NigeriaLight Cruiser8670Great Britain
8/12/194219.55AxumC.C. Renato FerriniMediterranean37°26’N-10°22’EWS21STorpedoDamagedOhioTanker9625United States
8/12/194219.38DessièT.V. Renato ScandolaMediterranean37°38’N-10°25’EWS21STorpedoSankDeucalionMotor Freighter7516Great Britain
8/13/194220.30GiulianiC.F. Giovanni BrunoAtlantic Ocean9°21’N-34°35’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankCaliforniaSteam Freighter5441United States
8/13/194221.05AlagiT.V. Sergio PucciniMediterranean37°28’N-10°38’EWS21.STorpedoSankClan FergusonSteam Freighter7347Great Britain
8/14/194204.51GranitoT.V. Leo SpositoMediterranean37°15’N-9°40’EWS21.STorpedoFailedH.N.S. AshantiDestroyerGreat Britain
8/14/194219.30GiulianiC.F. Giovanni BrunoAtlantic Ocean10°49’N-33°35’WTorpedoSankSyIvia de LarrinagaSteam Freighter5218Great Britain
10/6/194202.20BarbarigoC.C. Enzo GrossiAtlantic OceanTorpedoFailedPetuniaCorvetteGreat Britain
10/9/194207.05ArchimedeC.C. Guido SaccardoAtlantic Ocean4°29’N-20°52’WTorpedoSankOronsaySteam Freighter20043Great Britain
10/10/194200.14ArchimedeC.C. Guido SaccardoAtlantic Ocean58°18’N-27°55’WTorpedoDamagedNea HellasSteam Freighter16991Greece
11/2/194207.13Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean0°30’S-30°45’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankEmpire ZealSteam Freighter7009Great Britain
11/3/194217.03CagniC.C. Carlo LiannazzaAtlantic Ocean2°30’N-19°00’WTorpedoSankDagombaMotor Freighter3845Great Britain
11/4/194222.08Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean2°00’S-30°30’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAndreasSteam Freighter6566Greece
11/10/194200.12Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean5°40’S-32°41’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankMarcus WhitmanSteam Freighter7176United States
11/11/194206.11Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean3°51’S-29°22’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankVeerhavenSteam Freighter5291Netherland
11/12/194206.01ArgoT.V. Pasquale GigliMediterranean36°42’N-5°10’ETorpedoSankTynwaldArmed Merchant Cruiser2376Great Britain
11/12/194206.01ArgoT.V. Pasquale GigliMediterranean36°42’N-5°10’ETorpedoSankAwateaSteam Freighter13482Great Britain
11/15/194203.42AscianghiC.C. Rino ErierMediterranean36°45’N-5°11’ETorchTorpedoSankHMS AlgerineMinesweeper850Great Britain
11/29/194220:00CagniC.C. Carlo LiannazzaIndian Ocean34°53’S-17°54’ETorpedoSankArgoSteam Freighter1995Greece
12/12/194200.50TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean5°56’N-39°50’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankEmpire HawkSteam Freighter5032Great Britain
12/12/194218.25TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean7°25’N-39°19’WTorpedoSankOmbilinSteam Freighter5658Netherland
12/12/1942AmbraT.V. Mario ArilloMediterraneanAgerie’SArtillerySankBertoSteam Freighter1493Norwey
12/21/194219.59TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean0°49’S-41°34’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankOueen CitySteam Freighter4814Great Britain
12/25/194210:00TazzoliC.C. Carlo Fecia di CossatoAtlantic Ocean2°02’S-35°17’WTorpedoSankDona AuroraMotor Freighter5011United States
1/30/194300.17PlatinoT.V. Vittorio Patrelli CampagnanoMediterranean36°56’N-5°40’ETorpedoSankSamphireCorvette925Great Britain
2/5/1943AvorioT.V. Leone FiorentiniMediterraneanPhilippivilleTorpedoFailedUknownUknownUnknown
2/7/194323.27AcciaioT.V. Ottorino BeltramiMediterranean37°22’N-6°14’ETorpedoSankTervaniTanker409Great Britain
2/24/194312.24BarbarigoC.C. Roberto RigoliAtlantic Ocean4°46’S-31°55’WTorpedoSankMonte IgueldoSteam Freighter3453Spain
3/2/194323.01BarbarigoC.C. Roberto RigoliAtlantic Ocean17°10’S-35°58’WTorpedo and ArtillerySankAlfonso PennaSteam Freighter3540Brazil
3/3/194323.13BarbarigoC.C. Roberto RigoliAtlantic Ocean16°44’S-36°33’WTorpedoSankStag HoundMotor Freighter8591United States
3/14/194301.10Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean1°13’S-9°57’WTorpedoSankEmpress of CanadaSteam Freighter21517Great Britain
3/19/1943Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaAtlantic Ocean10°10’S-1°00’ETorpedoSankLulworth HillSteam Freighter7628Great Britain
3/28/194322.02FinziT.V. Mario RossettoAtlantic Ocean2°00’N-15°30’WTorpedoSankGranicosSteam Freighter3689Greece
3/30/194300.48FinziT.V. Mario RossettoAtlantic Ocean4°16’N-17°44’WTorpedoSankCeltic StarSteam Freighter5575Great Britain
4/17/1943Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaIndian Ocean31°30’S-33°30’ETorpedoSankSembilanSteam Freighter6566Netherland
4/18/1943Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaIndian Ocean30°59’S-33°00’ETorpedo and ArtillerySankManaarSteam Freighter8007Great Britain
4/21/1943Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaIndian Ocean32°03’S-34°03’ETorpedo and ArtillerySankDoryssaMotor Tanker8078Great Britain
4/21/1943Da VinciC.C. Gianfranco Gazzana PriaroggiaIndian Ocean32°10’S-34°50’ETorpedo and ArtillerySankJohn DraytonSteam Freighter7177United States
7/14/194322.30NichelioC.C. Claudio CelliMediterraneanMessinaArtillerySankMGB 641Motor Torpedo Boat90Great Britain
7/25/1943CagniC.C. Giuseppe Roselli LorenziniAtlantic Ocean6°52’N-20°45’WTorpedoDamagedHMS AsturiasArmed Merchant Cruiser22048Great Britain
8/26/1943CA 4S.T.V. Armando SibilleBlack SeaTorpedoSankSC-207Submarine586Soviet Unions
12/11/194102:40CaraccioloT.V. Alfredo MusottoMediterranean32°09’N-25°19’ETorpedoFailedDarienSteam Freighter459Great Britain
12/11/194102:40CaraccioloT.V. Alfredo MusottoMediterranean32°09’N-25°19’ETorpedoFailedH.M.S. FarndaleDestroyer1050Great Britain
10/2/194219:15SciesaMediterraneanTorpedoFailedUnknownUnknown
7/4/19422:10AsteriaT.V. Pasquale BeltrameMediterranean33°48’N, 34°56’ETorpedoFailedHMSAS Protea (?)Armed Whaler 955South Africa
11/13/194201:00AsteriaT.V. Dante MorroneMediterranean36°46’N, 05°08’ETorpedoFailedHMS PentstemonCorvette940Great Britain
6/26/194002:45AtropoC,F. Luigi CaneschiMediterraneanEast of AmorgosTorpedoFailedUnknownSubmarineUnknown
6/30/1940SirenaT.V. Galletti Mediterranean37°54’N-18°04’E Machine GunFailedSunderland “Q” 228th Squadron, L.5806Aircraft18Great Britain
7/24/194123:01SqualoT.V. Ludovico GrionMediterranean32°20’N-24°53’ETorpedoFailedUnknownTankerUnited Kigdom
8/22/194304:33JaleaT.V. Pasquale GigliMediterranean38°48’N-17°11’ENoneAbandonedMotor torpedo boatsUnknown
7/12/194003:25TurcheseT.V. Gustavo MinieroMediterranean38°24’N-09°19’ETordepo, Deck GunFailedUnknownShipUnknown
12/13/194022:22NeghelliT.V. Carlo FerracutiMediterranean32°37’N-26°44’E TorpedoDamagedH.M.S. Coventry Anti-Aircraft Cruiser4190Great Britain
1/19/1941NeghelliT.V. Carlo FerracutiMediterraneanTorpedoFailedPsara DestroyerGreece
1/19/194111:53 NeghelliT.V. Carlo FerracutiMediterranean37°15’N-24°04’E TorpedoDamagedClan Cumming Steam Freighter7264Great Britain
06/12/1940FisaliaT.V. Girolamo AcuntoMediterraneanOff Alexandria TorpedoFailedUnknownShipUnknown
06/21/194105:45JantinaC.C. Vincenzo PolitiMediterranean31°34’N-27°28’E TorpedoFailedH.M.A.S. ParramattaSloop1060Australia
08/27/194102:58BandieraC.C. Carlo ForniMediterranean36°50’N-11°07’ETorpedoFailedDeucalionMotor Freighter7740Great Britain
04/19/1943MenottiC.V. Ugo GelliMediterraneanStrait of SicilyMachine GunShot downFour-engine AircraftUnknown